The thirteen colonies gradually gained more autonomy.  British mercantilist policy became stricter, which benefited the metropolis, resulting in trade restrictions, limiting the growth of the colonial economy and artificially reducing the income potential of colonial traders. The sums were small, but Parliament insisted that it have the last commandment and that it be able to levy taxes at any time. Tensions escalated between 1765 and 1775 due to tax issues without American representation in Parliament. Beginning with the Boston massacre of 1770, when the British Redcoats opened fire on civilians, the rebellion consumed the indignant settlers. The British Parliament imposed a series of taxes, such as the Stamp Act of 1765, and the Tea Act of 1773, against which a mob of angry settlers protested at the Boston Tea Party by throwing boxes of tea in Boston Harbor. Parliament responded by adopting the so-called intolerant acts of 1774, which were intended to debone autonomy in Massachusetts. The 13 colonies were together. When the first shots were fired in the battles of Lexington and Concord in 1775, the American War of Independence began. The Patriots took control of the 13 colonies and expelled all British officials until mid-1776.
While the goal of independence was sought by a majority known as patriots, a minority known as loyalists wanted to remain as British subjects loyal to the king. When the Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia in May 1775, the deliberations of eminent figures such as Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Hancock, Samuel Adams and John Adams resulted in a decision on full independence. Thus, the declaration of independence, unanimously ratified on 4 July 1776, was a radical and decisive rupture. The United States of America was the first colony in the world to successfully achieve independence in modern times.  According to R. R. Palmer, the new American nation: strong relations between the United States and the United Kingdom reflect our shared democratic ideals and values, reinforced by cooperation on political, security and economic issues.